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This data shows that the effects of inequality have different magnitudes for males compared to females Table 3b.

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Inequality has a greater effect on life expectency in men than in women, but for healthy life expectancy, inequality creates a greater difference in women than in men. Females in the most deprived areas have a life expectancy 6. They also expect to spend The SII for males and females was computed using Stata software. This software automatically weights the population of each decile used in the regression analysis which had been manually weighted by ONS, causing a slight increase in the SII to the second decimal place.

Please see table 4b. Compared with —03, male mortality rates in —10 were lower in most socio-economic classes across the English regions and Wales; only the Intermediate class in the East region remained constant.

In females, mortality decreased between —03 and —10 in all classes in only London and the South West. Increases in mortality were observed in the Intermediate; Lower Supervisory and Technical; and the Semi-routine classes in several regions. The absolute inequality between the most and least advantaged men generally decreased across most English regions between and For women, the inequality decreased in some regions but showed an increase in others.

They found considerable variations in the strength of the association between class and cause of death. For example, with diseases such as malignant melanoma, breast cancer and transport accidents among women, no clear class differences were found.

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At the other extreme, mental and behavioural disorders, endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases and diseases of the respiratory system all show steep slopes for both men and women. Ethnicity and Culture There is a growing body of evidence documenting ethnic inequalities in health outcomes in the UK, and internationally, despite difficulties with the conceptualisation and measurement of ethnicity as an epidemiological variable see Box 1.

Box 1: Difficulties with the conceptualisation and measurement of ethnicity in health research. However, taking account of the methodological limitations and social context, these variables can be useful as a proxy for the complex concept of ethnicity Ellison, Ethnicity is not recorded on UK death certificates, and mortality data uses country of birth as a proxy, thus failing to identify ethnic minorities born in the UK. Table 4: Standardised mortality ratios by country of origin, England and Wales, Region Within the UK, more recent analysis based on the seven-class reduced National Statistics Socio-economic Classification NS-SEC shows regional trends in estimates of mortality rates of working age men in English regions and Wales, from to RII was chosen as an inequality measure as it uses and takes into account mortality rates data of all the intervening classes, in addition to the most and least advantaged NS-SEC classes; the 'Higher Managerial and Professional' and 'Routine' class respectively.


Mortality rates used were age-standardised per , population, according to the European Standard Population and of working age men 25 to Inequalities in health care and its access. Health care access is a supply side issue indicating the level of service which the health care system offers the individual.

While the concept of equity in access to health care horizontal equity has been a central objective of the NHS since it began, inequalities in health care access persist. The inverse care law, first described by Julian Tudor Hart in , states: The availability of good medical care tends to vary inversely with the need for it in the population served. As research strongly suggests, they suffer poorer health outcomes and access services less for various reasons.

Many studies investigating access to health care use treatment received i. However, utilisation of health services may vary for many several reasons such as perceptions of benefits or availability, availability of alternative therapies or services and is an imperfect measure of access. Nonetheless, it is commonly used as such. Availability: Some health care services may not be available to some population groups, or clinicians may have different propensities to offer treatment to patients from different population groups, even where they have identical needs.

Quality: The quality of services offered to patients may vary between population groups. Costs: The health care services may impose costs financial or otherwise which vary between population groups. Information: The health care organisations may fail to ensure that all population groups are equally aware of the services available. Engaging with socially excluded and marginalised populations presents a major challenge but increasing flexibility of services, working with voluntary sector organisations and user involvement can be effective mechanisms for reducing inequalities in access to healthcare.

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Following completion of a Bachelor of Social Sciences and Bachelor of Laws through the University of Waikato in , she joined the Department of Corrections as a programme facilitator. She delivered programmes at Waikeria Prison and worked for a year at the Tai Aroha residence in Hamilton. I te orooro, i te oromea, i tukituki ai koutou, i tataia ai koutou.

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To those who have contributed, to those who worked diligently to see this project complete: The journey required constant adjustment and fine-tuning to changing variables. Your leadership can be likened to that of the front of a waka breaking through the swells, the leaders who have directed and navigated Te Ara Tauwhaiti to completion. The Department of Corrections is committed to ensuring staff are supported to engage in a culturally responsive manner with those in our care.

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The framework which has been developed as guidance in this space is called Te Ara Tauwhaiti the tenuous pathway. In the past, cultural supervision was provided by external supervisors throughout Aotearoa. While experts in their chosen fields, it soon emerged that there were inconsistencies in practice, as there was no framework to guide them. In , the decision was made for cultural supervision to be delivered by internal Corrections staff. This approach saw supervision separated into three sections: learning and education, supervision, and advice and support.

Furthermore, it acknowledges that different cultural perspectives exist in all aspects of our work, which can have an impact on development and practice. It is a formal, bi-cultural process where these core social values are role-modelled via tuakana-teina mentoring relationships and applied by the supervisors in session. Te Pu-motomoto is the name of the doorway.

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During this journey, not only did he undergo further purification rites, but he faced challenges from Whiro; both in his ascent to, and descent from, Tikitiki-o-Rangi. It is expected that discussions will be undertaken through the lens of Kaupapa. To give discussions depth, Ara Tohu will be applied. In practice, both supervisors and supervisees have kaitiaki obligations. They are guided by the learning needs, development, reflections, knowledge and skill set of the supervisee.

The supervisor is guardian of the supervision venue and process. The supervisee is responsible for ensuring they are prepared for a session i. They are guardians of themselves and their learning and development. This kaupapa guides us in how we should interact in relationships with others; it is the expression of aroha, generosity, respect, kindness, support and care within these interactions.

In the supervision space, manaakitanga looks at how value can be added to supervisory relationships, knowledge, skill set, kaupapa and development, while acknowledging that it is a mutual elevation of mana. This means the supervision process enhances the mana of all involved in the process. The supervisor is expected to supervise in a manner which is mana-enhancing and mana-protecting. As a priority, the supervisor will consider how value can be added to interactions within the supervision space, as well as to the developmental areas of individual supervisees.

This mirrors to the supervisee the knowledge and skill set required to displaying manaakitanga in their own group sessions. At the heart of rangatiratanga is the recognition and nurturing of relationships. In the supervision space, rangatiratanga enables supervisors to support supervisees in realising they are the decision makers and navigators of their own journey.

It is also important that the supervisee is prepared prior to supervision by identifying what it is they would like to gain from the session.

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This kaupapa focuses on whakapapa as a connective device that links individuals through generations. It also has a focus on building non-kin relationships. It is understood that relationships are developed over time through shared experience, common goals and working together. The male gender role is not biologically fixed, yet it is a result of the internalization of culturally defined gender norms and ideologies. This is a time of confusion and disturbance; they feel influenced as a result of asserted hegemonic masculinity as well as social factors that lead them to become more self-conscious.

De Visser et al. It has been suggested that boys' emotional stoicism leaves them unable to recognize their own and others' emotions, which leaves a risk for developing psychological distress and empty interpersonal skills. The documentary, The Celluloid Closet discusses the depictions of homosexuals throughout film history.

We can't show any emotion except anger. We can't think too much or seem too intelligent. We can't back down when someone disrespects us. We have to show we're tough enough to inflict physical pain and take it in turn. We're supposed to be sexually aggressive with women. And then we're taught that if we step out of this box, we risk being seen as soft, weak, feminine, or gay [44].

Hegemonic masculinity has been used in education studies to understand the dynamics of classroom life, including patterns of resistance and bullying among boys. It was also used to explore relations to the curriculum and the difficulties in gender-neutral pedagogy. Hegemonic masculinity has greatly influenced criminology as data reflects that men and boys perpetuate more conventional crimes and more serious crimes than women and girls.

Moreover, men are responsible for much more white-collar crimes than women as well.